The first technique described here involves making a substitution to simplify an integral. We let a new variable equal a complicated part of the function we are trying to integrate. Choosing the correct substitution often requires experience. This skill develops with practice.

Often the technique of partial fractions can be used to write an algebraic fraction as the sum of simpler fractions. On occasions this means that we can then integrate a complicated algebraic fraction. We shall explore this approach in the second half of the section.


Learning Outcomes

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