### Introduction

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HELM booklet
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2.8. They were also used in the discussion on complex numbers in
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HELM booklet
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10.2. We shall examine the application of polars to the description of curves, particularly conics. Some curves, spirals for example, which are very difficult to describe in terms of Cartesian coordinates
$\left(x,y\right)$
are relatively easily defined in polars
$\left[r,\theta \right]$
.

#### Prerequisites

- be familiar with Cartesian coordinates
- be familiar with trigonometric functions and how to manipulate then
- be able to simplify algebraic expressions and manipulate algebraic fractions

#### Learning Outcomes

- understand how Cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates are related
- find the polar form of a curve given in Cartesian form
- recognise some conics given in polar form

#### Contents

1 Polar Coordinates2 Simple curves in polar coordinates

3 Standard conics in polar coordinates